Re-membering and taking up an ethics of listening: a response to loss and the maternal in "the stolen children"Brigitta Olubas and Lisa Greenwell
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In 1999, the continuing commemoration of the handing down of the 1997 Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Familiesregistered shifts in the public understanding and representation of reconciliation; specifically from 1998s National Sorry Day to 1999s The Journey of Healing: The Next Step. A perusal of the official Sorry Day website1 details the move from national to more local events, and away from the public affect of the signing of Sorry Books to community and individually monitored events performing other levels and modes of commemoration.
In light of this movement within the field of response to the Report over the past two years, it is useful to reflect on the ways it structured these processes of reconciliation together with and in terms of relations and dialogues between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians in and across the nation. This essay invites a return to the Report in terms of two other texts whose stories and interests overlap with its own: Carmel Birds The Stolen Children: Their Storiesand Gordon Matthews An Australian Son.
In its opening paragraphs, the President of the Commission, Sir Ronald Wilson established the Reports affective core and outlined the work it would be required to do in the national project of reconciliation:
Grief and loss are the predominant themes of this report. Tenacity and survival are also acknowledged. It is no ordinary report. Much of its subject matter is so personal and intimate that ordinarily it would not be discussed. These matters have only been discussed with the Inquiry with great difficulty and much personal distress. The suffering and the courage of those who have told their stories inspires sensitivity and respectThe Report includes over five hundred first-hand accounts from Indigenous Australians forcibly removed from their families and cultural heritage, from their languages, social knowledges and inter-cultural relations and connections as a direct result of Australian government laws, policies and practices. In making his response to the report, John Frow clarifies for us that:
In no sense has the Inquiry been raking over the past for its own sake. The truth is that the past is very much with us today, in the continuing devastation of the lives of Indigenous Australians. That devastation cannot be addressed unless the whole community listens with an open heart and mind to the stories of what has happened in the past and, having listened and understood, commits itself to reconciliation (1997: 3).The almost unspeakable word here is genocide. While seeking to remain strictly within the legal framework of the time and to avoid a retrospective moralism, the report nevertheless concludes that a principal aim of the child removal policies was the elimination of indigenous cultures, and that in the sense given the word by the relevant international convention this aim constitutes genocide (Meanjin1998: 364).Whilst Bringing Them Homeis not the first collection of personal stories of separation and loss by Indigenous Australian writers made available for public dissemination2, it does offer something completely different. Firstly, as a public document so generously proportioned with first hand accounts by the witnesses themselves, in this case Aboriginal voices, accounts that are, as Sir Ronald Wilson attests, subject matter of the most intimate and personal kind. Exceptionally, these stories are specifically directed towards a process for investing an ethic of response from non-Aboriginal people. The Report thus inaugurates the release of these memories into the public sphere of the nation through the act of listening by the whole community with an open heart and mind to the stories of what has happened in the past. This community, having listened and understood, commits itself to reconciliation (1997: 3).
Further, the Report is distinguished by the wide media engagement through which most Australians were made aware of its presence and general meaning; in particular, the broad public dissemination and attention via television. As a consequence the Report works uniquely within the space of the nation to intervene in the continuity of those Australian laws, policies and practices through advocating material, discursive and ethical reparation by bringing memories into the public sphere to become, in John Frows terms, a performative act:
The Report balances a language of lies and blame, not with praise but with release; it breaks the hold of a false language, indeed a false reality, a reality which should not have happened. Its function is thus performative as well as descriptive, or rather it uses description as the basis for a performative act ( AHR: 5).For Frow the core work of the Report is its significance as an attempted enactment of discursive justice not being done for the sake of shaming; it is done as a claim that a kind of listening a response, a taking on of responsibility must take place (Meanjin 98: 355). Thus, whilst Frows emphasis is on reading the Report for historiographic politics his politics of time his essay also offers a claim for an ethics of listening, the taking on of responsibility by non-Aboriginal Australians in relation to the stories presented in the Report. Homi Bhabha opens a way to understand such a responsibility in his response to the writing of Frantz Fanon:Remembering Fanon is a process of intense discovery and disorientation. Remembering is never a quiet act of introspection or retrospection. It is a painful re-membering, a putting together of the dismembered past to make sense of the trauma of the present. It is such a memory of the history of race and racism, colonialism and the question of cultural identity, that Fanon reveals. He offers the master and slave a deeper reflection of their interpositions, as well as the hope of a difficult, even dangerous freedom. This leads to a meditation on the experience of dispossession and dislocation psychic and social which speaks to the condition of the marginalized, the alienated, those who live under the surveillance of a sign of identity and fantasy that denies their difference (1994: 63).By specifying an ethics of listening, Frow is asking us, as is Sir Ronald Wilson in introducing his Report and Homi Bhabha in his response to Fanon, to be open to what has previously not been listened to, a difference denied. This ethic of listening works to suggest possibilities for figuring desire differently by proposing a public sphere that responds to the authorising voice of the other in articulating their difference and thus opening possibilities for living our difference in the public sphere.
The re-publication the following year of several of the stories from the Report as extracts provides an occasion to take up the detail of this sense of response and responsibility by non-Aboriginal Australians. The complexities of response and responsibility are significant here, and are played out around differences of race and gender, as might be expected. In the process, however, the details of the enunciative relations of difference are teased out, suggesting what is at stake in the acts of listening, what we stand to lose.
We might imagine, for a moment, the dynamics of listening, a radically different relation for the management of authority and desire between the self and the other in the public sphere3. Listening might be understood as an activity which maintains the difference between us and them whilst simultaneously opening between these a space for the movement of sound waves washing across and up onto the shores of the receivers ear. This ear, awaiting reception, is one desiring to become sensitive to the sensation of the waves as they break and run up upon its membrane. These waves, touching and soaking into the nerve endings in the process pass the reverberations through into the intricacies of the interstitial connections and onto the larger organising system of the recipients body. This body is a desiring one, yearning to be touched by hearing from an other and in that desire, yearning also to reciprocate the touch by taking on a form of responsibility to remember.
The relay of sound is not, of course, uninterrupted. John Frow locates the terms of a particular discursive tension between authority and desire arising from the attempt to bring about such an ethical response. This is the tension between the political need to speak on behalf of indigenous people, to lend the authority of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission to those who are unauthorised in the public sphere and the desire to restore a voice to them within and as a part of the report (Meanjin: 354). At the heart of the Report, then, is the desire to advocate, that is, to speak on behalf of an unauthorised other in order to redress the inequality within the current system of relations as an imperative to creating a place of address for the previously silenced other.
Here however a double bind arises: asymmetrical access to speaking positions, determined and secured in historical terms, seems only to be extended or perpetuated by speech from those established or identified positions; speech seems only to amplify the already privileged and authorising voice. The problem then resists its resolution, and listening returns us to the question: how to speak without effacing the others difference? It is as an effect of this double bind, between desire and authority, that the political and ethical imperatives brought about by the Report become entangled in the arena of what Linda Alcoff calls the crisis of representation (1991: 9). The crisis to which Alcoff refers is that which has arisen across the West in response to critiques of universalism, that is, in terms of the particularities of minority differences and their authorisation of those differences, where speaking about others accommodates a desire to negate, such as is offered in the Hegelian dialectic.
Alcoff offers a detailed consideration of the political complexities for the enunciating position of speaking through her close attendance to the tensions between intent and effect. She proposes a process that operates similarly whether speaking for the self or for others:Who is speaking, who is spoken of, and who listens is a result as well as an act, of political struggle. Simply put, the discursive context is a political arena We certainly want to encourage a more receptive listening in the part of the discursively privileged and discourage oppressive practices of speaking for (1991: 17).Here the possibilities for difference are addressed at the site of the authorising enunciation, the discursively privileged, involving a responsibility for listening as well as a self-reflective responsibility on the part of the speaker who chooses to speak for the other.
From here, Marcia Langtons well-known discussion of Aboriginality as a field of intersubjective relations offers a critical means to engage with the seamless exclusion of Aboriginal voices and responses as a structural commonplace in Australian society. Langton shows us how inextricably linked our stories are to the social world we inhabit, to our sense of self, to our sense of the other, and to our ways of moving and engaging between ourselves and about each other.
Langton reminds us how dramatically identity is structured through differential access to enunciative positions in any account of Australian society:For Aboriginal people, resolving who is Aboriginal and who is not is an uneasy issue, located somewhere between the individual and the State. They find white perceptions of Aboriginality are disturbing because of the history of forced removal of children, denial of civil rights and dispossession of land (1993: 28).Further, Langton argues that reciprocity is the imperative at stake in the struggle for the Aboriginal subject against the non-Aboriginal subjects failure to allow Aboriginal people to articulate their own models of what they perceive Europeans to be (1993: 37).
Langtons well-known account of discursive community formation around the subject provides for a reciprocal model of relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians, and imagines collaboration (rather than consultation) at the intimate level of co-production between subjects separated by their differently constituted communities. This model: generated when Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people engage in actual dialogue, where the individuals test and adapt imagined models of each other to find satisfactory forms of mutual comprehension (1993: 81) opens up possibilities for radically different ways of being in the nation; an alternative to the continuities of terra nullius, Aboriginal Deaths in Custody and the Stolen Generations.
It is towards this radical category of subject relations that the Report moves in its offer of deep and sensitive ethical engagements listening and responding from within the Australian community with the release of memories of Aboriginal people. The problem remains and is at the heart of Langtons model of how to restore a voice to those whose voices have been denied; the tension Frow articulates between authority and desire.
"'The Stolen Children', Remembering Their Stories" continues with part two ...
Brigitta Olubas is a lecturer in the School of English at the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Lisa Greenwell is a cultural studies research student at the University of New South Wales.
Linda Alcoff, The Problem of Speaking For Others Cultural CritiqueWinter 1991-92: 5-32.
Homi Bhabha, Interrogating Identity: Frantz Fanon and the Postcolonial Prerogative in The Location of CultureLondon & New York: Routledge, 1994: 40-65.
Ed Carmel Bird, The Stolen Children: Their Stories Sydney: Random House,1998. The introduction to this collection is published in the February 1998 edition of Australian Humanities Review.
Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their FamiliesSydney: Commonwealth of Australia, 1997.
John Frow, A Politics of Stolen Time Meanjin57/2 1998: 351-367. This article is also published in the February 1998 edition of Australian Humanities Review.
John Frow, A Politics of Stolen Time Australian Humanities Review http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org/archive/Issue-February-1998/frow2.html
Gay Hawkins, Review Stephen Muecke, No Road (bitumen all the way) in The Australian Journal of AnthropologySpecial Issue 10, December 1998: 350-352.
Marilyn Lake, Lessons From the Stolen Children Age17 Jan 98: 9.
Marcia Langton, Well I heard it on the Radio and I saw it on the Television An Essay for the Australian Film Commission on the politics and aesthetics of filmmaking by and about Aboriginal people and thingsSydney: Australian Film Commission, 1993.
Gordon Matthews, An Australian SonPort Melbourne: William Heinemann, 1996.
2 In 1982 a Report containing first hand stories from Aboriginal people was published in book form for general release by the then Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs and edited by Peter Read: The Stolen Generations; the removal of Aboriginal children in NSW 1883-1969(Sydney: Government Printer, 1982) In 1989 a privately published book containing first-hand stories from Aboriginal people forcibly removed from their families by New South Wales Government authorities, edited by Coral Edwards and Peter Read, was released into general circulation: The Lost Children: thirteen Australians taken from their Aboriginal families tell of their struggle to find their natural parents(Sydney: Doubleday, 1989).
3 For discussions of listening as a political imperative see Questions of Multi-Culturalism: Sneja Gunew and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak Hecate12/1-2, 1986: 136-142; and P Abood, G Fuller, E Hatzimanolis, B Olubas, Not Speaking, Listening Bulletin of the Olive Pink SocietyJanuary 1997: 4-14.
4 The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation is a broad representative body working to develop the growing peoples movement for reconciliation and comprising a majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members. For further information on the Council see their website: http://www.austlii.edu.au/car/
5 One of the essays included in Birds text to frame the Stolen Childrens stories is by Marilyn Lake: Lessons From the Stolen Children (originally publishedAge17 Jan 98: 9). Lakes essay provides an important historical account of white womens resistances to the officially sanctioned removal of Aboriginal children. Her interest, however, in charting a feministcontinuity between the maternalism of the 1930s activists and white Australians engaged in reconciliation in the 1990s is a concern, particularly in light of the maternal metaphorics of Birds text.
6 According to Hawkins: This critique goes something like this: reconciliation is just another form of assimilation because it implies that black and white should resemble each other. This denies incommensurable difference and effaces the fundamental politics of black and white relations. (1998: 352).
In Australian Humanities Review,see also
- Fiona Paisley's Race and Remembrance: Contesting Aboriginal Child Removal in the Inter-War Years
- Henry Reynolds's After Mabo, What About Aboriginal Sovereignty? and The Stolen Children Their Stories: an afterword
- John Frow's A Politics of Stolen Time
- Carmel Bird's The Stolen Children Their Stories
- Sue Stanton's Time for Truth: Speaking the Unspeakable Genocide and Apartheid in the 'Lucky' Country
- Those two little words by Beth Spencer
- and Cracking Up by Hannah Fink
Please feel free to contribute to this discourse.
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